Two Bits

Christopher M. Kelty

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Two Bits - The Cultural Significance of Free Software

Christopher M. Kelty

Two Bits - The Cultural Significance of Free Software,
Christopher M. Kelty





Part I the internet

[the internet]

1. Geeks and Recursive Publics

From the Facts of Human Activity
Geeks and Their Internets
Operating Systems and Social Systems
The Idea of Order at the Keyboard
Internet Silk Road
From Napster to the Internet
Requests for Comments
Conclusion: Recursive Public

2. Protestant Reformers, Polymaths, Transhumanists

Protestant Reformation
Polymaths and Transhumanists

Part II free software

3. The Movement

Forking Free Software, 1997-2000
A Movement?

4. Sharing Source Code

Before Source
The UNIX Time-Sharing System
Sharing UNIX
Porting UNIX
Forking UNIX

5. Conceiving Open Systems

Hopelessly Plural
Open Systems One: Operating Systems
Figuring Out Goes Haywire
Open Systems Two: Networks
Bootstrapping Networks
Success as Failure

6. Writing Copyright Licenses

Free Software Licenses, Once More with Feeling
EMACS, the Extensible, Customizable, Self-documenting, Real-time Display Editor
The Controversy
The Context of Copyright

7. Coordinating Collaborations

From UNIX to Minix to Linux
Design and Adaptability
Patch and Vote
Check Out and Commit
Coordination Is Design
Conclusion: Experiments and Modulations

Part III modulations

[Part III]

8. "If We Succeed, We Will Disappear"

After Free Software
Stories of Connexion
Modulations: From Free Software to Connexions
Modulations: From Connexions to Creative Commons
Participant Figuring Out

9. Reuse, Modification, and the Nonexistence of Norms

Whiteboards: What Was Publication?
Publication in Connexions
Agency and Structure in Connexions
From Law and Technology to Norm
On the Nonexistence of Norms in the Culture of No Culture


The Cultural Consequences of Free Software



Library of Congress

Library of Congress Catalog








SiSU Metadata, document information

Rights: Copyright: © 2008 Duke University Press
Printed in the United States of America on acid-free paper ∞
Designed by C. H. Westmoreland
Typeset in Charis (an Open Source font) by Achorn International
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication data and republication acknowledgments appear on the last printed pages of this book.
License: Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share Alike License, available at or by mail from Creative Commons, 559 Nathan Abbott Way, Stanford, Calif. 94305, U.S.A. "NonCommercial" as defined in this license specifically excludes any sale of this work or any portion thereof for money, even if sale does not result in a profit by the seller or if the sale is by a 501(c)(3) nonprofit or NGO.
Duke University Press gratefully acknowledges the support of HASTAC (Humanities, Arts, Science, and Technology Advanced Collaboratory), which provided funds to help support the electronic interface of this book.
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