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Buyer's Right to Withhold Performance and Termination of Contract: A Comparative Study Under English Law, Vienna Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods 1980, Iranian and Shi'ah Law  * 
Mirghasem Jafarzadeh,  **  Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran, December 2001

Introduction

PART ONE: Buyer's Right to Withhold Performance and Termination of Contract under English Law

1. Introduction

2. Rejection and Termination

2.1. Breach of Condition
2.1.1. Rejection and Termination, One Remedy or Two?
2.1.2. Relationship Between the Two Remedies
2.1.3. Seller's Right to Cure
2.2. Breach of "Intermediate" Term
2.2.1. Description of the Doctrine
2.2.2. Operation of the Doctrine
2.3. Special Cases
2.3.1. Breach of Severable Contracts
2.3.2. Breach of Time Stipulation
2.3.3. Breach of Quantity Stipulation
2.3.4. Documentary Sales: Breach of the Duty to Tender Shipping Documents

3. Mechanism of Termination

3.1. No Automatic Termination
3.2. Election of the Remedies
3.2.1. Election of Termination
3.2.2. Election of Affirmation

4. Effects of Termination

4.1 . Effects on the Contract
4.2 . Effects on Rights and Obligations

PART TWO: Buyer's Right to Withhold Performance and Termination [Avoidance] of Contract under the UN Sales Convention

1. Withholding Performance

1.1 Introduction
1.1.1. Concept of the Right
1.1.2. Importance of the Right
1.2. Withholding Performance as a General Right?
1.2.1. Prospective Non-Performance
1.2.2. Actual Non-Performance
1.2.3. Early or Excessive Delivery
1.2.4. Buyer's Right to Refuse to Take Delivery as a General Remedy
1.2.5. Grounds for the Right
1.3. Special Cases
1.3.1. Partial Delivery and Partial Non-Conforming Delivery
1.3.2. Tender of Non-Conforming Documents

2. Termination [Avoidance] of Contract

2.1. Introduction
2.2. Grounds for Termination
2.2.1. Fundamental Breach
2.2.2 . Nachfrist
2.2.3. Breach of Severable Contract
2.3. Buyer's Right to Terminate and the Seller's Right to Cure
2.4. Mechanism of Termination
2.4.1. No Automatic Termination
2.4.2. Electing to Terminate the Contract
2.4.3. Election of Affirmation
2.5. Effects of Termination
2.5.1. Effects on the Contract
2.5.2. Effects on Rights and Obligations

PART THREE: Buyer's Right to Withholding Performance and Termination of Contract Under Iranian and Shi'ah Law

1. Withholding Performance

1.1. Introduction
1.1.1. Classification of Contracts
1.1.2. Classification of Contractual Obligations
1.2. Buyer's Right to Withhold Performance
1.2.1. Theoretical Bases of the Right
1.2.2. When Can the Buyer Withhold?
1.3. Special Cases
1.3.1. Partial Non-Conforming Delivery
1.3.2. Wrong Quantity Delivery
1.3.3. Seller's Failure as Regards the Shipping Documents

2. Termination of Contract

2.1. Introduction
2.2. Grounds for Termination
2.2.1. General Principle
2.2.2. Grounds for Kheyarat
2.2.3. Relevant Kheyarat
2.2.4. Seller's Right to Cure
2.2.5. Special Cases
2.3. Mechanism of Termination
2.3.1. No Automatic Termination
2.3.2. Election of Termination
2.3.3. Election of Affirmation
2.4. Effects of Termination
2.4.1. Effects on the Contract
2.4.2. Effects on Rights and Obligations

PART FOUR: Comparative Assesment

[PART FOUR: Comparative Assesment]

CONCLUSION

[Conclusion]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

[Bibiliography]

1. English Law
(I) Books and Articles
(II) Judicial Decisions
(III) Statutes
3. The Convention
(I) Books and Articles
(II) Documents
(III) Statutes
(IV) Judicial Decisions
(V) Web Site Addresses
4. Iranian and Shi'ah Law
(A) Iranian Law
(B) Shi'ah Law

Endnotes

Endnotes

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Buyer's Right to Withhold Performance and Termination of Contract - A Comparative Study Under English Law, Vienna Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods 1980, Iranian and Shi'ah Law^{[*]}^

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