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"Battle of the Forms" Under the 1980 United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods: A Comparison with Section 2-207 UCC and the UNIDROIT Principles,
Maria del Pilar Perales Viscasillas  * 

I. Introduction

II. "Battle of the Forms" Methods of Finding a Solution to the Conflict Between Clauses

III. General Conditions as Part of the Contract

IV. The Battle-of-the-Forms Solution in Accordance with the Rules of Offer and Acceptance: Objections to the Last-Shot Doctrine

A. It is an arbitrary solution because it tends to favor the last person who sends his form
B. There can be bad faith ramifications
C. The results of the rule are too mechanistic and formal
D. It favors the "ping-pong" effect

V. The Knock-Out Rule: Section 2-207 UCC and Article 2.22 of the UNIDROIT Principles

1. Notice of non-conformity example
2. Arbitration example
3. Pricing example
A. Section 2-207 UCC
1. Analysis of Section 2-207 UCC
2. Rules to determine the existence of the contract
3. Rules to determine the terms of the contract
B. The UNIDROIT Principles
1. Rules to determine the conclusion of the contract
2. Rules for determining the content of the contract

VI. The Solution to the Battle of the Forms under the Rules of the Vienna Sales Convention

A. The exclusion of the rules of Part II of the CISG
B. The application of the general principles of the Convention
C. The implicit exclusion of Article 19 of the CISG
D. The partial application of Article 19 of the CISG
E. The search for uniformity: Articles 18 and 19 CISG
1. Rules to determine the conclusion of the contract
2. Rules to determine the content of the contract
3. Some conclusions

VII. The Vienna Rules of the Convention, Section 2-207 UCC and the UNIDROIT Principles: A Comparison

A. Exchange of forms with terms that do not modify the offer materially
B. Exchange of forms with terms that materially modify the offer
C. An exchange of forms with contradictory terms, followed by performance
D. Term included in the offer but not in the acceptance, followed by performance
E. Term added in the acceptance but not in the offer, followed by performance
F. Term added in the acceptance along with a "defensive clause"
H. Exchange of documents different from the forms

Endnotes

Endnotes

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Maria del Pilar Perales Viscasillas

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Title:

"Battle of the Forms" Under the 1980 United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods: A Comparison with Section 2-207 UCC and the UNIDROIT Principles

Creator:

Maria del Pilar Perales Viscasillas

Rights:

Copyright: CISG Database, Pace Institute of International Commercial Law. Reproduced with the permission of the author and "10 Pace International Law Review" (1998) 97-155

Date:

1998

Date available:

1999-08-11

Publisher:

SiSU on behalf of CISG Database, Pace Institute of International Commercial Law

Topics Registered:

CISG

battle of forms

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battle_of_forms_under_cisg_comparison_with_ucc_2-207_and_upicc.maria_perales_viscasillas.sst

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